However, as Christians under a strict Muslim social structure, Armenians faced pervasive discrimination. Waste management in Armenia is underdeveloped, as no waste sorting or recycling takes place at Armenia s 60 landfills. The league currently consists of eight teams and relegates to the Armenian First League. Armeniaâs long history as a crossroads of the ancient world has resulted in a landscape with innumerable fascinating archaeological sites to explore.  The ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Cilicia was a strong ally of the European Crusaders, and saw itself as a bastion of Christendom in the East. In the next centuries, Armenia was in the Persian Empire s sphere of influence during the reign of Tiridates I, the founder of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia, which itself was a branch of the Parthian Empire. It maintains good relations with the United States especially through its Armenian diaspora. For other uses, see Hayastan (disambiguation). In the agreement, Turkey allowed the Soviet Union to assume control over Adjara with the port city of Batumi in return for sovereignty over the cities of Kars, Ardahan, and IÄdÄ±r, all of which were part of Russian Armenia.  Owing to the century long Turco-Iranian geopolitical rivalry that would last in Western Asia, significant parts of the region were frequently fought over between the two rivalling empires dating an armenian. As a result, the Dashnaktsutyun government of Eastern Armenia declared its independence on 28 May as the First Republic of Armenia under the leadership of Aram Manukian. However, the first Armenian film with Armenian subject called Haykakan Sinema was produced earlier in 1912 in Cairo by Armenian-Egyptian publisher Vahan Zartarian dating an armenian. But those difficulties notwithstanding, 90 percent of Armenians athletes on Soviet Olympic teams came back with medals. It has not lifted its blockade despite pressure from the powerful Turkish business lobby interested in Armenian markets.  Approximately 139,000 Armenians live in the de facto independent country Republic of Artsakh where they form a majority. Medieval, Iron Age, Bronze Age and even Stone Age sites are all within a few hours drive from the city.
In March 1993, Armenia signed the multilateral Chemical Weapons Convention, which calls for the eventual elimination of chemical weapons. Nowadays the university is ranked among famous higher Medical Institutions and takes its honourable place in the World Directory of Medical Schools published by the WHO.  The ratification of those had to be made in the national parliaments. 5% in 2015,  still remains a major problem due to the influx of thousands of refugees from the Karabakh conflict. Gorbachev s inability to alleviate any of Armenia s problems created disillusionment among the Armenians and fed a growing hunger for independence. Soviet relics and souvenirs of recent Russian manufacture â nesting dolls, watches, enamel boxes and so on â are also available at the Vernisage. Cinema in Armenia was born on April 16, 1923, when the Armenian State Committee of Cinema was established by a decree of the Soviet Armenian government. Over the past decade, the government has made an effort to encourage scienceâindustry linkages. 40,000 to 70,000 Armenians still live in Turkey (mostly in and around Istanbul). Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. This federation, however, lasted from only February to May 1918, when all three parties decided to dissolve it.  On 23 August 1990, Armenia declared its sovereignty on its territory. The largest Armenian communities outside of Armenia can be found in Russia, France, Iran, the United States, Georgia, Syria, Lebanon, Argentina, Australia, Canada, Greece, Cyprus, Israel, Poland, Ukraine and Brazil. The latter achievement saw FC Ararat gain entry to the European Cup where â despite a home victory in the second leg â they lost on aggregate at the quarter final stage to eventual winner FC Bayern Munich. Mkhitar Heratsi was the founder of Armenian Medical school in Cilician Armenia. The Armenian Army, Air Force, Air Defence, and Border Guard comprise the four branches of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Armenia. Armenia have never qualified for a major tournament although recent improvements saw the team to achieve 44th position in the FIFA World Rankings in September 2011.
In the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid dynasty of Iran divided Armenia. Tensions were running high between Armenians and Azerbaijanis during the final years of the Soviet Union. The extension programs and the library at AUA form a new focal point for English-language intellectual life in the city... American University of Armenia The American University of Armenia has graduate programs in Business and Law, among others. On 17 March 1991, Armenia, along with the Baltic states, Georgia and Moldova, boycotted a nationwide referendum in which 78% of all voters voted for the retention of the Soviet Union in a reformed form. Armenian gold smithery enjoys a long tradition, populating one corner of the market with a selection of gold items. Summers are dry and sunny, lasting from June to mid-September. The Entente Powers, appalled by the actions of the Ottoman government, sought to help the newly founded Armenian state through relief funds and other forms of support. Artists such as Sayat Nova are famous due to their influence in the development of Armenian folk music.  The Armenian Apostolic Church is in communion only with a group of churches within Oriental Orthodoxy. From the early 16th century, both Western Armenia and Eastern Armenia fell to the Safavid Empire. Witnesses there claimed that the MVD used excessive force and that they had instigated the fighting. The Armenian government s stated aim is to build a Western-style parliamentary democracy as the basis of its form of government.  In 1989 some 58% of Armenians over age fifteen had completed their secondary education, and 14% had a higher education. Armenia acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as a non-nuclear weapons state in July 1993. In addition, a permanent solution for the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict has not been reached despite the mediation provided by organizations such as the OSCE. .